Past Tense – katta  

As I have show you how to convert Verbs into past tense in my previous post. Today, I will show you how to convert Adjectives into Past Tense.

 
English
Expensive
Heavy
Fast
Bad / Poor
Difficult
Enjoy / Fun
Delicious

Quiet
Beautiful / Pretty / Nice
Skillful
Like
Polite
Kind
Convenient

Good

 
Present Tense
Takai
Omoi
Hayai
Warui
Muzugashii
Omoshiroi
Oishii

Shizuka
Kirei
Jouzu
Suki
Teinei
Shinsetsu
Benri

Ii

 
Past Tense
Takakatta
Omokatta
Hayakatta
Warukatta
Muzugashikatta
Omoshirokatta
Oishikatta

Shizuka deshita
Kirei deshita
Jouzu deshita
Suki deshita
Teinei deshita
Shinsetsu deshita
Benri deshita

Yokatta

As you can see above, there are 3 types of usage for different group of adjectives. The top part which uses “katta” is simple. All you need to do is to remove the “i” at the back and replace with “katta”. However there are some words with an “i” at the back but you cannot replace it with “katta”. These are special words. Sound confusing, right? Yes, it indeed very confusing where many Japanese Learner got them mixed up.

Those words (adjectives) without an “i” at the end will definately use “deshita”. You don’t need to remove any alphabet (in Japanese – the hiragana character) whereby you just need to add a “deshita” at the back. To identify which adjective that end with “i” requires “katta” or “deshita”, simply look at the second japanese character.

For example : teinei (in hiragana, it identifies as te i ne i) – If the fourth character is just before the “i”, then use “deshita”. In this case, the “ne” is the fourth character just before the “i”. Just like “kirei (ki re i)” – “re” is the fourth character.

For more information on the Japanese Character, have a look at Pronunciation section

You must remember, the “i” that I mentioned above is Japanese Character not English Alphabet. Dont mix up with this otherwise you will end up saying “Suki” as “Sukkatta” which will make the Japanese scratching their heads.

Suki or Benri doesn’t end with “i” but instead there are end with “ki” and “ri” respectively.

OK, the last one which is “Ii” (Good). This is a very special word that will change totally to different word. For past tense, you have to use “yokatta”.

Na  

The meaning of “Na” is to represent something with with an adjective.

Example
Quiet Garden – Shizuka na kouen desu
Beautiful Flower – Kirei na hana desu
Famous Person – Yuumei na hito desu
Kind Police – Shinsetsu na omawarisan desu
Convenient Shop – Benri na omise desu

Meaning : Shizuka (Quiet), Kouen (Garden), Kirei (Beautiful), Hana (Flower), Yuumei (Famous), Hito (Person), Shinsetsu (Kind), Omawarisan (Police), Benri (Convenient), Omise / Mise (Shop)

Understanding of Words

Fine / Healthy
Polite
Unique / Skillful / Proficient
Unskillful / Poor
Tasteless
Delicious
Like (Love)
Genki
Teinei
Tokui / Jouzu
Nigate / Heta
Mazui
Oishii
Suki

Shika & Mo  

“Shika” is use to indicate that there is only a specific numbers. Example :
Q : Are there 8 apples? – Ringo ga yattsu arimasu ka?
A : No, there is only 1 apple – Iie, Ringo wa hitotsu shika arimasen

Q : Are there 20 textbooks? – Nihongo no kyoukasho ga nijuu satsu arimasu ka?
A : No, There is only 5 books – Iie, go satsu shika arimasen

“Mo” means “too” but there is other meaning depending how you form a sentence. Example :
Q : Are there 10 mandarin oranges? – Mikan ga jukko arimasu ka?
A : No, there isn’t any mandarin orange OR No, not even 1 orange is there- Iie, Mikan wa ikko mo arimasen.

John and I go to school too – Watashi mo John mo gakkou e ikimasu

Meaning : Ringo (Apple), Kyoukasho (Textbook), Mikan (Mandarin Orange)

Pieces  

In Japanese, it uses different pronunciation to represent “piece” for different type of things.

For Human – How many person (Nan nin)
Hitori (1 person), Futari (2 persons), Sannin, Yonnin, Gonin, Rokunin and so on

For Animal – How many (Nan Biki)
Ippiki (1 animal), Nihiki (2 animals), Sanbiki, Yonhiki, Gohiki, Roppiki, Nanahiki, Happiki, Kyuuhiki

For papers, clothes, etc in piece form – How many pieces (Nan Mai)
Ichimai (1 piece), Nimai, Sanmai, Yonmai and so on

For books – How many books (Nan Satsu)
Issatsu (1 book), Nisatsu, Sansatsu, ……. Hassatsu, Kyuusatsu

For sticks (ie. cigarettes, tree, pencil, etc) – How many sticks (Nan Bon)
Ippon (1 stick), Nihon, Sanbon, Yonhon, Gohon, Roppon, Nanahon, Happon, Kyuuhon, Juppon

For cups, spoons & glass – Hom many cups / glasses / spoons (Nan Bai)
Ippai, Nihai, Sanbai, Yonhai, Gohai, Roppai, Nanahai, Happai, Kyuuhai, Juppai

For floor / level – How many floors / Which floor / level (Nan Gai)
Ikkai, Nikai, Sangai, Yonkai, Gokai, Rokkai, Nanakai, Hakkai / Hachikai, Kyuukai, Jukkai

For time – What time (Nan Ji)
Ichiji, Niji, Sanji, Yoji, Goji, Rokuji, Nanaji, Hachiji, Kuji, Juuji

For minutes – How many minutes (Nan Pun)
Ippun, Nihun, Sanpun, Yonpun, Gohun, Roppun, Nanahun, Kyuuhun, Juppun

For rounded things, pieces form – How many pieces (Ikutsu or Nan Ko)
Hitotsu, Futatsu, Mittsu, Yottsu, Itsutsu, Muttsu, Nanatsu, Yattsu, Kokonotsu, Too
OR
Ikko, Niko, Sanko, Yonko, Goko, Rokko, Nanako, Hakko, Kyuuko, Jukko

Hope it is not too confusing 😀

De (By / With / At)  

Today I will show you how to use “de” (by / with / at)

Eat with chopstick – O hashi de tabemasu
Cut with scissors – Hasami de kirimasu
Write with pencil – Enpitsu de kakimasu
Speak in English – Eigo de hanashimasu

Go by car – Kuruma de ikimasu

Swim at the sea – Umi de Oyogimasu
Play inside the house – Uchi no naka de asobimasu

Meaning : Hashi (Chopstick / Bridge), Hasami (Scissors), Eigo (English), Umi (Sea), Oyogimasu (Swim), Asobimasu (Play)

Q : You come by what? – Nani de kimasu ka?
A : I come by car – Kuruma de kimasu

For negative use “de wa”. Example : Hasami de wa kirimasen

The combination of “de” and “e”
Go to school by train – Densha de Gakkou e ikimasu
Isn’t going to school by train – Densha de wa gakkou e ikimasen

Stay Tuned ! Level 2 lesson will be on the way.

E & Ni  

“E” & “Ni” represent directions

Q : Are you going to office? – Kaisha e / ni ikimasu ka?
A : Yes, I am going to office – Hai, kaisha e / ni ikimasu
Q : Are you going to school – Gakkou e ikimasu ka?
A : No, I am not going to school – Iie, Gakkou e wa / ni wa ikimasen

Q : Where do you go? – Doko e ikimasu ka?
A : I am going to office – Kaisha e ikimasu

Q : Yesterday, where have you gone? – Kinou, doko e ikimashita ka?
A : I went to Ginza.How about you? – Ginza e ikimashita. Anata wa?
Q : I went to Shinjuku but my brother went to Ginza. – Watashi wa Shinjuku e ikimashita ga, Ani wa Ginza e ikimashita.

Q : Is Tony in? – Tony-san, imasu ka?
A : No, he is not in at the moment – Iie, ima, imasen
Q : Where is he? – Doko ni imasu ka?
A : He is in the cofeeshop infront of the train station. He will be back soon. – Eki no mae no kissaten ni imasu. Sugu kimasu.

Meaning : Kinou (Yesterday), Ima (Now), Sugu (Soon), Kimasu (Come)

You may notice the “ga” that located in between 2 sentences. It represents “but”.

 
English
Pack
Brush
Put
Talk
Erase / Switch Off
Send Out / Take Out
Drop
Buy
Use
Sing
Smoke
Wash
Wait
Carry
Type
Transport
Undress
Wake
Sleep
Sell
Sit
Enter / Get In / Go In
Return Home / Go Back
Board / Ride
 
Standard Form
Tsutsumu
Migaku
Oku
Hanasu
Kesu
Dasu
Otosu
Kau
Tsukau
Utau
Suu
Arau
Matsu
Motsu
Utsu
Hakobu
Nugu
Okiru
Neru
Uru
Suwaru
Hairu
Kaeru
Noru
 
“masu” Form
Tsutsumimasu
Migakimasu
Okimasu
Hanashimasu
Keshimasu
Dashimasu
Otoshimasu
Kaimasu
Tsukaimasu
Utaimasu
Suimasu
Araimasu
Machimasu
Mochimasu
Uchimasu
Hakobimasu
Nugimasu
Okimasu
Nemasu
Urimasu
Suwarimasu
Hairimasu
Kaerimasu
Norimasu

Conversation – Verbs  

Today, I will show you how to converse using Verbs

Conversation 1
Q : Is the window closed? – Mado o shimemashita ka?
A : Yes, the window and curtain are closed – Hai, Mado mo ka-ten mo shimemashita (the curtain is an aditional info to the question, that’s why “mo” is used) OR
A : Yes, it’s closed – Hai, shimemashita

Conversation 2
Q : Have you rented a house? – Uchi o karimashita ka?
A : No, I did not rent a house but rented an Apartment – Iie, uchi wa karimasen deshita, apa-to o karimashita
Q : I see. Where is the Apartment located? – Sou desu ka. Sono apa-to wa doko ni arimasu ka?
A : It’s near the train station. – Eki no soba ni arimasu.

Conversation 3
Waiter : Welcome – Irasshaimase
Tony : What do you want to drink – Nani o nomimasu ka?
Jenny : Coffee for me. How about you? – Watashi wa ko-hi- desu. Anata wa?
Tony : Me too and order me a cake please – Watashi mo. Sorekara ke-ki mo onegai shimasu

Meaning : Mado (Window), Shimemashita (Closed), Ka-ten (Curtain), Uchi (House), Karimashita (Rented), Apa-to (Apartment), Doko (Where), Iwasshaimase (Welcome), Nomimasu (Drink), Ko-hi (Coffee), Ke-ki (Cake), Onegai Shimasu (Please)

You may have notice that some verbs use “mashita” instead of “masu”. “mashita” is use for Past Tense where “masu” is Present Tense. For example :

 
Present Tense
Nomimasu
Karimasu
Tabemasu
Mimasu
Kakimasu
 
Past Tense
Nomimashita
Karimashita
Tabemashita
Mimashita
Kakimashita
 

See, It’s easy. Japanese Present/Past Tense is much easier than English.

Merry Christmas & Happy New Year  

I’ll be going off for my Christmas Holiday with family for 3 days.

Wishing all of you a
Merry Christmas & Happy New Year

Verbs  

Today I will show you how to use Verbs in Japanese.

 
English
Eat
Drink
Read
Rest
Teach
Open
Close
Write
Think
Throw
See
 
Standard Form
Taberu
Nomu
Yomu
Yasumu
Oshieru
Akeru
Shimeru
Kaku
Kangaeru
Suteru
Miru
 
“masu” Form
Tabemasu
Nomimasu
Yomimasu
Yasumimasu
Oshiemasu
Akemasu
Shimemasu
Kakimasu
Kangaemasu
Sutemasu
Mimasu

As you can see in the above example, the verbs in standard form (impolite) and “masu” form (polite) are different. Here I will show you how to do the conversion.

Whenever there is “4th tone” (ie: ke, se, re, me, etc) in the second last of the japanese character, you should change the last character to masu. Example : Taberu, notice that the “be” is positioned in second last, then you should use “Taberumasu (replace “ru” with “masu”). Another example, “Akeru” >> Akemasu.

With “3rd tone” (ie: ku, su, mu, ru, etc) positioned as last character, always replace with “2nd tone” (ie: ki, shi, mi, ri, etc) follow by “masu. Example : Kaku >> Kakukimasu, Yasumu >> Yasumimasu. However some verbs ending with “ru” cannot be replace with “ri” but to replace with “masu”. Those special verbs are, Miru (See), Kiru (Wear), Kariru (Rent/Borrow), Okiru (Wake) where you have to change them to “Mimasu”, “Kimasu”, “Karimasu” & “Okimasu” respectively. For your info, there are some verbs with the same pronunciation but different Kanji. Example: Kiru which mean “Wear(着る)” & “Cut(切る) but only Wear use Kimasu where the rest will be “rimasu” (ie: kirimasu). Confusing huh!!!

There are also some special verbs such as “Kuru (Come)” & “Suru (Do)” where it will be changed to “Kimasu” & “Shimasu” respectively.

If you want to change the “masu (positive)” to negative, just use “masen”. Example : Tabemasen

It is a bit confusing initially but as long as you practice more, you will one day master the verbs conversion.

1st Review  

Today, I would like to review back what we have learned previously by Question & Answer. I will post the questions in English at the bottom and all you need to do is post your answers in Romaji (Japanese) in the comment. I will then let your know whether it is wrong or right.

Why I am doing this is because practical is an important factor to keep what we have learned in mind.

Here we go :
Example : My Question – What is this? Your Answer in comment – Kore wa nan desu ka?

Q1 – This is my pencil

Q2 – This is my car

Q3 – Is that your wallet?

Q4 – Yes, it is mine

Q5 – No, that is not my pencil

Q6 – Whose book is this?

Q7 – This book belongs to my younger brother

Q8 – That new car costs 100,000 yen

Q9 – Is this table heavy?

Q10 – How old is your elder brother?

Q11 – Your bag is in my father’s car

Q12 – I have a brown wallet as well as (and also) an expensive pen

OK, that’s all for this section. Try it out now !!!

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